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Oral Health Prev Dent 18 (2020), Open Access 12. Feb. 2020
Oral Health Prev Dent 18 (2020), Open Access (12.02.2020)
Open Access CASE REPORT, Online Article, Page 953-958, doi:10.3290/j.ohpd.a45435, PubMed:33215486
Online Article: Juvenile Spongiotic Gingival Hyperplasia: Clinicopathological Features of Eight Cases and a Literature Review
Innocentini, Lara Maria Alencar Ramos / Santos, Thais Tedeschi / Reis, Marília Bianchini Lemos / Mandetta, Carolina de Moraes Rego / Santos, Rafael Moraes Chaves / Mesquita, Ricardo Alves / da Silva, Tarcília Aparecida / Grossmann, Soraya de Mattos Camargo / Lemos, Celso Augusto / Grisi, Márcio Fernando de Moraes / León, Jorge Esquiche / Motta, Ana Carolina Fragoso
Background: Juvenile spongiotic gingival hyperplasia (JSGH) is a benign proliferation of non-keratinised stratified squamous epithelium with evident spongiosis, exocytosis leukocytes and dilated vessels with varying numbers of inflammatory cells. Although uncertain, it has been suggested that the epithelial proliferation is probably related to trauma and local irritants. It emerges as a painless erythematous patch or papule with an irregular surface.
Case reports: We present a series of eight cases and a literature review of the clinical presentation and treatment approaches for JSGH. This series includes four females and four males with a mean age of 11.6 years, all complaining of injury to the gums. All lesions were painless and not bleeding. One patient associated the lesion with the onset of trauma and another with a previous history of an eruption cyst. Periapical radiographs of the adjacent area did not show any alteration of bone or teeth. Based on these findings, the diagnostic hypotheses were a non-neoplastic proliferative process or a factitious injury. Incisional biopsy was performed and histopathologic diagnosis was conclusive for JSGH. Surgical excision was conducted in three cases, and the other five cases were supported by clinical observation and plaque control in order to prevent gingival recession defects. After a follow-up period of 11 months (mean), no recurrence was observed for surgically treated cases and mild improvement was achieved with periodontal treatment.
Conclusion: This case series illustrates the importance of diagnosis and follow-up of patients with JSGH. A conservative approach consisting of basic periodontal support instead of surgical excision may be indicated because of the risk of aesthetic defects at the involved areas.
Keywords: gingival diseases, hyperplasia, inflammatory gingival hyperplasia, junctional epithelium, spongiotic gingival hyperplasia