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Oral Health and Preventive Dentistry
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Oral Health Prev Dent 18 (2020), Open Access     12. Feb. 2020
Oral Health Prev Dent 18 (2020), Open Access  (12.02.2020)

Open Access ORAL MEDICINE, Online Article, Page 741-746, doi:10.3290/j.ohpd.a45077, PubMed:32895657


Online Article: Enamel Defects in Deciduous Dentition and Their Association with the Occurrence of Adverse Effects from Pregnancy to Early Childhood
Neto, Mário Batista Ciríaco / Silva-Souza, Kassia Paloma da / Maranhão, Valéria Fernandes / Botelho, Kátia Virginia Guerra / Heimer, Mônica Vilela / Dos Santos-Junior, Valdeci Elias
Purpose: To verify the prevalence of developmental defects of enamel (DDE) in deciduous teeth and analyse the association with adverse events that occurred during pregnancy and early childhood.
Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 152 children with an average age of 3.57 ± 1.25 years were examined according to the criteria established by the DDE index. A previously validated questionnaire was given to mothers in order to obtain information regarding: calcium and vitamin D deficiency (measured in mothers); gestational diabetes; gestational undernutrition; weight at birth; neonatal hypoxia; and presence of asthma in early childhood. The clinical exam was conducted by a single examiner calibrated for visual exams (Kappa = 0.84), outdoors on patios of schools with children and examiner knee to knee. Pearson's chi-squared test and Fisher's Exact Test (p < 0.05) were used to determine statistically significant associations between the variables in study. The data were then analysed using a binary logistic regression regression.
Results: 26.3% of children exhibited DDE. It was possible to verify a statistically significant association between DDE and vitamin D deficiency (p < 0.01), calcium deficiency (p = 0.01), neonatal hypoxia (p = 0.026), and gestational diabetes (p = 0.04). The regression model allowed the conclusion that children who had neonatal hypoxia during childbirth, gestational diabetes or vitamin D deficiency during their gestation were 3.54, 12.47 and 6.40 more likely to exhibit signs of DDE, respectively.
Conclusion: The prevalence of DDE was considered high and was associated with vitamin D and calcium deficiency during pregnancy, gestational diabetes, and neonatal hypoxia.

Keywords: child, child health, dental enamel hypoplasia, pregnancy