Oral Health Prev Dent 18 (2020), No. 2 1. Apr. 2020
Oral Health Prev Dent 18 (2020), No. 2 (01.04.2020)
Open Access PERIODONTOLOGY, Page 103-114, doi:10.3290/j.ohpd.a44323, PubMed:32238981
Association of Vitamin D With Periodontal Disease: A Narrative Review
Dragonas, Panagiotis / el-Sioufi, Iosif / Bobetsis, Yiorgos A. / Madianos, Phoebus N.
Purpose: To present a review of available literature on the association of vitamin D and periodontal disease.
Materials and Methods: A thorough search of articles was carried out on the databases PUBMED and MEDLINE regarding vitamin D and periodontal disease. The selected literature included cross-sectional, case-control and prospective and retrospective cohort studies. The main aspects of the association evaluated were a) the association of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D3 with periodontal disease severity, periodontal disease progression and tooth loss, b) the effect of vitamin D supplementation on periodontal health and c) the association of vitamin D receptor polymorphisms with periodontal disease. A brief overview of the biological mechanisms linking periodontal disease with vitamin D was also included.
Results and Conclusions: There is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of 25(OH)D on periodontal disease severity, progression and tooth loss, with some studies reporting beneficial effects of higher 25(OH)D serum concentrations on periodontal health and tooth retention, whereas others could not find such an association. Limited evidence also supports a positive association between 1,25(OH)2D3 and periodontal health as well as a trend towards better periodontal health with vitamin D supplementation. Finally, various vitamin D polymorphisms were associated with chronic and aggressive periodontitis, with different outcomes reported for the various ethnic populations assessed.
Keywords: periodontal disease, vitamin D concentration, vitamin D supplementation, vitamin D receptor, polymorphism, periodontal inflammation