Oral Health Prev Dent 18 (2020), No. 3 8. June 2020
Oral Health Prev Dent 18 (2020), No. 3 (08.06.2020)
Open Access ORAL HEALTH, Online Article, Page 511-519, doi:10.3290/j.ohpd.a44036, PubMed:32515422
Online Article: Assessment of Periodontal Status Based on Carotid Artery Intima Media Thickness
Nitya, Krishna N. / Doshi, Dolar / Kulkarni, Suhas / Reddy, Madupu Padma / Srilatha, Adepu / Satyanarayana, Dantala
Purpose: Atherosclerosis is a devastating disease worldwide since it is the most frequent cause of myocardial infarction, stroke, renal failure, peripheral vascular disease and perhaps dementia. There is a well-documented evidence supporting the association between clinical/subclinical atherosclerosis and periodontitis. Carotid intima media wall thickness (CIMT) is a histopathologically validated marker of atherosclerosis. This study's purpose was to assess periodontal status based on carotid artery intima media thickness.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among subjects who visited the Care Hospital, Nampally Hyderabad for CIMT test. Oral hygiene status was evaluated using Simplified Oral Hygiene Index and periodontal health status was measured using modified World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Assessment form, 1997. The data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0. The proportions and mean scores were compared using chi-square test, Mann–Whitney U test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Logistic regression analysis determined the relationship between periodontitis, as an independent variable and other variables with CIMT. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: A total of 600 individuals were classified based on CIMT thickness ≤ 1 mm (292; 48.6%) and CIMT > 1 mm (308; 51.3%) according to variables. Significantly higher mean scores were observed for all oral parameters among subjects with CIMT > 1 mm aged > 45 years and among males (p ≤ 0.05*). Logistic regression analysis showed that increasing age group, ie,> 45 years (OR 3.5), males (OR 2.02), university education (OR 2.99), no history of previous dental visit (OR 3.71); and visit ≥ 1 year (OR 0.76) and previous history of tobacco (OR 1.13) and alcohol use (OR 1.65), poor OHI-S (OR 8.00), Community Periodontal Index (CPI) with Code 3, 4 (OR 4.41) and loss of attachment (LOA) with Code 2 (OR 3.05) and Code 3 (OR 5.80) had significantly higher odds among individuals with subjects with CIMT > 1 mm compared to their counterparts (p ≤ 0.05*).
Conclusion: The results of the study concluded that periodontal disease and poor oral hygiene were more severe among the subjects with CIMT > 1 mm. To halt the progression of increasing CIMT, preventive oral health programmes need to be integrated in the cardiac setting with established dental referral which can bring out positive health behaviours.
Keywords: atherosclerosis, carotid artery intima media thickness, periodontal disease, India, oral hygiene