Oral Health Prev Dent 16 (2018), No. 3 19. July 2018
Oral Health Prev Dent 16 (2018), No. 3 (19.07.2018)
Page 233-239, doi:10.3290/j.ohpd.a40672, PubMed:29946578
Oral Health Status of Stroke Patients Related to Residual Symptoms: A Case-Control Epidemiological Study in Hungary
Károlyházy, Katalin / Arányi, Zsuzsanna / Hermann, Péter / Vastagh, Ildikó / Márton, Krisztina
Purpose: Stroke is a leading cause of death in developed countries. Recently, its connection with oral health has been a focus of the medical literature. The aim of this study was therefore to statistically examine the oral health of subjects who previously suffered from stroke and provide a guide for the dental treatment of these patients.
Materials and Methods: Stroke patients at least one year after the stroke episode and age- and sex-matched healthy controls were examined: dental and medical stroke histories were recorded, followed by a detailed orofacial examination. A categorisation into three 'dental' subgroups of stroke patients was carried out based on their residual symptoms, the functional deficiency of limbs, and chewing and swallowing difficulties. Indices quantifying oral hygiene (OHI-S), dental status explained by the number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT), periodontal status (CAL, CPITN, Mühlemann index), and the status of prosthetic treatment (prosthetic index) were assessed. Statistical comparison was performed between the patient and age- and sex-matched control subjects, as well as between subgroups of stroke patients.
Results: One hundred two stroke patients and 98 healthy age- and sex-matched control subjects were examined. The oral health and dental status of stroke patients was worse compared with the control group. Stroke patients had significantly more decayed (2.3 ± 3 vs1.1 ± 1.8; p = 0.01) and missing (19.3 ± 9.5 vs 15.5 ± 9.3; p = 0.005) teeth, but significantly fewer filled (3.6 ± 4.7 vs 7.7 ± 5.6; p < 0.001) teeth than did the healthy controls. In stroke patients, clinical attachment loss (CAL) was double that of the control group (p < 0.001). A comparison between the subgroups of stroke patients revealed that the most severe findings were in patients who had chewing and swallowing disabilities.
Discussion: According to these results, the combination of risk factors of stroke, residual neurological signs after stroke, and poorer socioeconomic conditions results in poor oral hygiene, poor dental and periodontal conditions, and a lower prosthetic index. Special care and attention should be given to the oral hygiene and dental treatment of such patients, to enable good nourishment.
Keywords: dental oral health, dysphagia, hemiparesis, periodontal, prosthetic, stroke