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Oral Health and Preventive Dentistry



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Oral Health Prev Dent 14 (2016), No. 3     3. June 2016
Oral Health Prev Dent 14 (2016), No. 3  (03.06.2016)

Page 215-225, doi:10.3290/j.ohpd.a35302, PubMed:26669657

Pattern of Utilisation of Dental Health Care Among HIV-positive Adult Nigerians
Adedigba, Michael A. / Adekanmbi, Victor T. / Asa, Sola / Fakande, Ibiyemi
Purpose: To determine the pattern of dental care utilisation of people living with HIV (PLHIV).
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 239 PLHIV patients in three care centres was done. Information on sociodemographics, dental visit, risk groups, living arrangement, medical insurance and need of dental care was recorded. The EC Clearinghouse and WHO clinical staging was used to determine the stage of HIV/AIDS infection following routine oral examinations under natural daylight. Multivariate logistic regression models were created after adjusting for all the covariates that were statistically significant at univariate/bivariate levels.
Results: The majority of subjects were younger than 50 years, about 93% had not seen a dentist before being diagnosed HIV positive and 92% reported no dental visit after contracting HIV. Among nonusers of dental care, 14.3% reported that they wanted care but were afraid to seek it. Other reasons included poor awareness, lack of money and stigmatisation. Multivariate analysis showed that lack of dental care was associated with employment status, living arrangements, educational status, income per annum and presenting with oral symptoms. The area under the receiver operating curve was 84% for multivariate logistic regression model 1, 70% for model 2, 67% for model 3 and 71% for model 4, which means that the predictive power of the models were good.
Conclusion: Contrary to our expectations, dental utilisation among PLHIV was generally poor among this group of patients. There is serious and immediate need to improve the awareness of PLHIVs in African settings and barriers to dental care utilisation should also be removed or reduced.

Keywords: dental health care utilisation, HIV, Nigeria