Oral Health Prev Dent 12 (2014), No. 4 18. Dec. 2014
Oral Health Prev Dent 12 (2014), No. 4 (18.12.2014)
Page 345-355, doi:10.3290/j.ohpd.a31662, PubMed:24624388
Testing Five Social-Cognitive Models to Explain Predictors of Personal Oral Health Behaviours and Intention to Improve Them
Dumitrescu, Alexandrina L. / Dogaru, Beatrice C. / Duta, Carmen / Manolescu, Bogdan N.
Purpose: To test the ability of several social-cognitive models to explain current behaviour and to predict intentions to engage in three different health behaviours (toothbrushing, flossing and mouthrinsing).
Materials and Methods: Constructs from the health belief model (HBM), theory of reasoned action (TRA), theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and the motivational process of the health action process approach (HAPA) were measured simultaneously in an undergraduate student sample of 172 first-year medical students.
Results: Regarding toothbrushing, the TRA, TPB, HBM (without the inclusion of self-efficacy SE), HBM+SE and HAPA predictor models explained 7.4%, 22.7%, 10%, 10.2% and 10.1%, respectively, of the variance in behaviour and 7.5%, 25.6%, 12.1%, 17.5% and 17.2%, respectively, in intention. Regarding dental flossing, the TRA, TPB, HBM, HBM+SE and HAPA predictor models explained 39%, 50.6, 24.1%, 25.4% and 27.7%, respectively, of the variance in behaviour and 39.4%, 52.7%, 33.7%, 35.9% and 43.2%, respectively, in intention. Regarding mouthrinsing, the TRA, TPB, HBM, HBM+SE and HAPA predictor models explained 43.9%, 45.1%, 20%, 29% and 36%, respectively, of the variance in behaviour and 58%, 59.3%, 49.2%, 59.8% and 66.2%, respectively, in intention. The individual significant predictors for current behaviour were attitudes, barriers and outcome expectancy.
Conclusion: Our findings revealed that the theory of planned behaviours and the health action process approach were the best predictor of intentions to engage in both behaviours.
Keywords: dental flossing, mouthrinsing, self-efficacy, theory planned behaviour, toothbrushing