Oral Health Prev Dent 10 (2012), No. 3 12. Oct. 2012
Oral Health Prev Dent 10 (2012), No. 3 (12.10.2012)
Page 243-252, doi:10.3290/j.ohpd.a28520, PubMed:23094267
Relationship of Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco Use to Tooth Loss in a Central Indian Population
Anand, Pradeep S. / Kamath, Kavitha P. / Shekar, B. R. Chandra / Anil, Sukumaran
Purpose: The present study was conducted to determine the patterns of tooth loss among subjects with different tobacco- related habits and compare it with non-users of tobacco.
Materials and Methods: A total of 1075 patients over the age of 14 years attending the Department of Periodontics, People's College of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Bhopal, India from May to September 2009 were included in the study. Besides name, age and gender, information regarding tobacco habits was recorded through interviews. Based on the tobacco habits, the patients were grouped into 4 categories: group 1 (non-users of tobacco), group 2 (smokers only), group 3 (smokeless tobacco users only) and group 4 (users of both smoking and smokeless tobacco). Tooth loss was determined by clinical examination of all permanent teeth excluding the third molars. Tooth loss included missing or extracted teeth as well as teeth indicated for extraction due to periodontal disease, dental caries or wasting diseases. Prevalence and mean tooth loss for whole dentition, maxillary and mandibular arches were compared between the 4 groups. The chi-square test and one-way ANOVA were used for comparing the prevalence and mean tooth loss, respectively, between different groups.
Results: The overall prevalence and mean tooth loss, respectively, for different groups were as follows: group 1: 28.3% and 0.85; group 2: 56.1% and 1.97; group 3: 58.7% and 2.38; group 4: 56.7% and 2.48 (P < 0.001 for both prevalence and mean tooth loss). The prevalence and mean tooth loss, respectively, for the maxillary arch for the different groups were: group 1: 15.3% and 0.32; group 2: 43% and 1.24; group 3: 34.3% and 0.91; group 4: 45.4% and 1.26 (P < 0.001 for both prevalence and mean tooth loss). The prevalence and mean tooth loss, respectively, for the mandibular arch for the different groups were: group 1: 22.3% and 0.52; group 2: 33.6% and 0.73; group 3: 50.9% and 1.48; group 4: 48.5% and 1.23 (P < 0.001 for both prevalence and mean tooth loss).
Conclusion: When compared to non-users of tobacco, tooth loss was greater among subjects who consumed tobacco. In India, where consumption of tobacco in different forms is very common, public health programmes need to be implemented to increase public awareness regarding the adverse effects of tobacco on oral health.
Keywords: periodontitis, smokeless tobacco, smokers, tooth loss