Oral Health Prev Dent 13 (2015), No. 3 16. June 2015
Oral Health Prev Dent 13 (2015), No. 3 (16.06.2015)
Page 253-259, doi:10.3290/j.ohpd.a32671, PubMed:25197731
The Effect of Waterpipe Smoking on Periodontal Health
Bibars, Abdel Rahim M. / Obeidat, Suhair R. / Khader, Yousef / Mahasneh, Arwa M. / Khabour, Omar F.
Purpose: To determine the effect of waterpipe smoking on periodontal health.
Materials and Methods: The study included 190 participants who were categorised into four groups; cigarette smokers, waterpipe smokers, dual smokers and nonsmokers. Intraoral examination included plaque (PI), gingival (GI) and calculus (CI) indices, probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and bleeding on probing (BOP).
Results: The four groups differed significantly in the prevalence and extent of periodontal disease. Pairwise comparison tests showed that the means of percentages of sites with PPD > 3 mm, PPD > 4 mm, CAL > 1 mm and bleeding on probing were significantly higher among smoking groups compared to the nonsmoking group (p < 0.05). After adjusting for age, cigarette smokers (OR = 4.6), waterpipe smokers (OR = 4.3) and dual smokers (OR = 4.9) were significantly more likely to have periodontal disease compared to nonsmokers. When data were analysed according to the smoking method, no significant differences in the odds of periodontal disease were detected between different smoking groups (p > 0.05).
Conclusion: Waterpipe tobacco smoking is not an alternative, safe way of smoking considering periodontal disease. Thus, global actions against waterpipe smoking are required.
Keywords: hookah, periodontal disease, periodontal health, tobacco smoking, waterpipe